Resources & Research
The Mushroom Council has spent more than a decade investing in scientific research to better understand the nutritional benefits of mushrooms. Following are fact sheets that address some of today’s most relevant nutrition topics from weight management to sustainability. For full studies, view the Research section at the bottom of the page.
Just Add Mushrooms: Multiply the flavor and nutrients of your favorite dishes just by adding mushrooms. View PDF.
Feed Your Immune System: A fact sheet that takes a closer look at the nutrients found in mushrooms. View PDF.
Mushroom Nutrition At-A-Glance: A fact sheet that gives an overview of mushrooms’ nutritional benefits. View PDF.
Mushroom Varieties Chart: A guide to common mushroom varieties, their attributes and nutritional values. View PDF.
Mushrooms: The Perfect Partner in a Gluten-Free Diet Fact Sheet: Understanding what is gluten free and what isn’t can also take research and time. Simply said, like all fruits and vegetables, mushrooms are naturally gluten free, and make a delicious and nutritious addition to a gluten-free diet. View PDF.
How Mushrooms Fit into Popular Diets: A “cheat sheet” to help navigate where mushrooms fit into everything from Keto and low FODMAP to Volumetrics and Flexitarian. View PDF.
Vitamin D Fact Sheet: A fact sheet about mushrooms and vitamin D, including the health impact and risks associated with vitamin D deficiency. View PDF.
The Better-For-You-Blend Fact Sheet: With The Blend, it’s never been easier to enjoy healthier versions of your favorite recipes without sacrificing taste and texture. View PDF.
Flavor-Enhancing Properties of Mushrooms Fact Sheet: A study from the Culinary Institute of America and University of California-Davis, published in the Journal of Food Science, found that blending finely chopped mushrooms with ground meat enhances flavor and nutrition. View PDF.
Cut the Sodium with Mushrooms – Less Salt. More Flavor: A 2014 study from the Culinary Institute of America and University of California-Davis study found you can maintain flavor while reducing sodium intake with mushrooms. View PDF.
Healthy on the Plate, Gentle on the Planet: The Mushroom Sustainability Story: The lines between health and sustainability are beginning to blur – a healthy diet should include food choices that respect future accessibility to nutritious food and overall global health. View PDF.
Manage Your Weight with Mushrooms: A fact sheet about how eating mushrooms can help manage weight and contribute to overall health and wellness. View PDF.
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See below for a list of existing research on the nutrients in mushrooms and how they may help in disease prevention. This research is just the beginning of what is sure to be an exciting journey into a fuller understanding of mushrooms and your health.
This research section is organized by topics of interest. For nutrition composition of common edible and culinary mushrooms, see: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. FoodData Central, 2019. fdc.nal.usda.gov.
Jedinak A, et al. Pleurotus ostreatus inhibits colitis-related colon carcinogenesis in mice. Int J Mol Med 2010;26:643-50.
Jiang J, Sliva D. Novel medicinal mushroom blend suppresses growth and invasiveness of human breast cancer cells. Int J Oncol 2010;37:1529-1536.
Kodama N, Mizuno S, Nanba H, Saito N. Potential antitumor activity of a low-molecular-weight protein fraction from Grifola frondosa through enhancement of cytokine production. J Med Food 2010;13:20-30.
Lin H, et al. Maitake beta-glucan promotes recovery of leukocytes and myeloid cell function in peripheral blood from paclitaxel hematotoxicity. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2010;59:885-897.
Louie B, Rajamahanty S, Won J, Choudhury M, Konno S. Synergistic potentiation of interferon activity with maitake mushroom d-fraction on bladder cancer cells. BJU Int 2010;105:1011-1015.
Martin KR, Brophy SK. Commonly consumed and specialty dietary mushrooms reduce cellular proliferation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Exp Biol Med 2010;235:1306-14.
Shin A, et al. Dietary mushroom intake and the risk of breast cancer based on hormone receptor status. Nutr Cancer 2010;62:476-83.
Zhang M, Huang J, Xie X, Holman CD. Dietary intakes of mushrooms and green tea combine to reduce the risk of breast cancer in Chinese women. Int J Cancer 2009;124:1404-8.
Martin KR, Brophy S. Dietary mushrooms reduce mitogenesis and induce apoptosis and cytotoxicity in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. 2009. Experimental Biology, New Orleans, LA.
Hong SA, Kim K, Nam SJ, Kong G, Kim, MK. A case-control study on the dietary intake of mushrooms and breast cancer risk among Korean women. Int J Cancer 2008;122:919-23.
Adams LS, Phung S, Wu X, Ki L, Chen S. White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) exhibits antiproliferative and proapoptotic properties and inhibits prostate tumor growth in athymic mice. Nutr Cancer 2008;60:744-56.
Jedinak A, Sliva D. Pleurotus ostreatus inhibits proliferation of human breast and colon cancer cells through p53-dependent as well as p53-independent pathway. Int J Oncology 2008;33:1307-13.
Di Rado, A. “Researchers study mushrooms’ cancer-fighting potential.” Hope News 3 (16 June 2008). City of Hope. https://www.cityofhope.org/about/publications/hope-news/2008-vol-3-num-19-june-16/Pages/researchers-study-mushrooms-cancerfighting-potential.aspx.
Chen S, et al. Anti-aromatase activity of phytochemicals in white button mushrooms. Cancer Res 2006;66:12026-34.
Chen S, et al.Chemopreventive properties of mushrooms against breast cancer and prostate cancer. Int J Med Mushr 2005;7:342-3.
Wasser SP. Medicinal mushrooms as a source of antitumor and immunomodulating polysaccharides. Appl Microbiol Biot 2002;60:258-74.
Grube BJ, et al. White button mushroom phytochemicals inhibit aromatase activity and breast cancer cell proliferation. J Nutr 2001;131:3288-93.
Jeong SC, et al. Macrophage immunomodulating and antitumor activities of polysaccharides isolated from Agaricus bisporus white button mushrooms. J Med Food. 2012 Jan; 15(1):58-65
Twardowski P, Kanaya N, Frankel P, Synold T, Ruel C, et al. A phase I trial of mushroom powder in patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer: Roles of cytokines and myeloid-derived suppressor cells for Agaricus bisporus-induced prostate-specific antigen responses. Cancer 2015; May 18. doi. 10.10.1002/cncr.29421.
Li J, Zou L, Chen W, et al. Dietary mushroom intake may reduce the risk of beast cancer: Evidence from a meta-analysis of observational studies. PLOS One. 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093437. Open Access.
Suzuki N, Yuko T, Riho S, et al. Efficacy of oral administration of Lentinula edodes mycelia extract for breast cancer patients undergoing postoperative hormone therapy. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2013; 14: 3469-3472. doi:10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.6.3469.
Lee DH, Yang M, Keum N, Giovannucci EL, Sun Q, Chavarro JE. Mushroom Consumption and Risk of Total and Site-Specific Cancer in Two Large U.S. Prospective Cohorts. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2019 Aug;12(8):517-526. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0101. Epub 2019 Jun 4. PMID: 31164344; PMCID: PMC6677603.
Zhang S, Sugawara Y, Chen S, Beelman RB, Tsuduki T, Tomata Y, Matsuyama S, Tsuji I. Mushroom consumption and incident risk of prostate cancer in Japan: A pooled analysis of the Miyagi Cohort Study and the Ohsaki Cohort Study. Int J Cancer. 2020 May 15;146(10):2712-2720. doi: 10.1002/ijc.32591. Epub 2019 Sep 4. PMID: 31486077; PMCID: PMC7154543.
Mona Calvo, Robert Beelman, Anita Mehrotra, Girish Nadkarni, Lingzhi Wang, Goh Boon Cher, and Jaime Uribarri. Risk factor modification in pre-diabetic adults consuming white button mushrooms rich in the anti-oxidant, ergothioneine (117.4). FASEB .J April 2014. doi: 28:117.4
Martin KR. Both common and specialty mushrooms inhibit adhesion molecule expression and in vitro binding of monocytes to human aortic endothelial cells in a pro-inflammatory environment. Nutr J 2010;16:29.
Weigand AJ, et al. Bioavailability of ergothioneine from mushrooms in adult men. Institute of Food Technologists annual meeting, Chicago, IL. 2010
Dubost NJ, et al. Quantification of polyphenols and ergothioneine in cultivated mushrooms and correlation to total antioxidant capacity. Food Chem 2007;105:727-735.
Dubost NJ, et al. Identification and quantification of ergothioneine in cultivated mushrooms by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Int J Med Mushr 2006;8:215-22.
Kozarski M, Klaus A, Jakovljevic D, Todorovic N, Vunduk J, Petrovic P, Niksic M, Vrvic MM, and van Griensven L. Antioxidants of edible mushrooms. Molecules 2015, 20, 19489-19525. Open Access.
Siu K-C, Chen X, and Wu JY. Constituents actually responsible for the antioxidant activities of crude polysaccharides isolated from mushrooms. Journal of Functional Foods, Vol.11, November 2014, Pages 548–556.
Calvo MS, Beelman RB , Mehrotra A, Nadkarni G, Wang L, Cher GB, Uribarri J. Risk factor modification in pre-diabetic adults consuming white button mushrooms (WBM) rich in the anti-oxidant, ergothioneine. The FASEB Journal 2014; 28:1. Supplement 117.4.
Xiaoshuang Dai, Joy M. Stanilka, Cheryl A. Rowe, Elizabethe A. Esteves, Carmelo Nieves, Samuel J. Spaiser, Mary C. Christman, Bobbi Langkamp-Henken, Susan S. Percival. Consuming Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Mushrooms Daily Improves Human Immunity: A Randomized Dietary Intervention in Healthy Young Adults, J Am Coll Nutr. 2015 Apr; 11:1-10.
Wang J, Wu D, et.al. Dietary Supplementation with White Button Mushroom Augments the Protective Immune Response to Salmonella Vaccine in Mice. J. Nutr. November 20, 2013.
Chandra L, et al. White button and shiitake mushrooms reduce the incidence and severity of collagen-induced arthritis in dilute brown non-agouti mice. J Nutr 2011;141:131-6.
Kuvibidila S, Korlagunta K. Extracts from culinary-medicinal mushrooms increase intracellular α-Defensins 1-3 concentration in HL60 cells. Int J Med Mushr 2010;12:33-42.
Martin KR. Both common and specialty mushrooms inhibit adhesion molecule expression and in vitro binding of monocytes to human aortic endothelial cells in a pro-inflammatory environment. Nutr J 2010;9:29.
Sanhong Y, Weaver V, Martin K, Cantorna MT. The effects of whole mushrooms during inflammation. BMC Immunol 2009;10.
Traore D, Peterson S, Alexander H, Sharp D, Clarke S, Lucas E, Smith BJ, Kuvibidila S. The effects of Portabella mushrooms on bone mineral density and body composition in mice without and with collagen induced arthritis. Experimental Biology, New Orleans, LA. 2009
Kuvibidila S, Alexander H, Lim YF, Christopher L, Lucas E, Clarke SL, Smith BJ. White button, Shiitake, and Portabella mushrooms modulate the development of collagen-induced arthritis in mice. FASEB J 2009;23.
Ren Z, Guo Z, Meydani SN, Wu D. White button mushroom enhances maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and their antigen presenting function in mice J Nutr 2008;138:544-550.
Calvo MS, Mehrotra A, Beelman RB, Nadkami G, Wang L, Weijing C, Goh Boon C, Kalaras MD and Uribarri J. A retrospective study in adults with metabolic syndrome: Diabetic risk factor response to daily consumption of Agaricus bisporus (white button mushrooms. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2016 Sept. 71(3):245-51.
Dai X and Percival S. Shiitake-derived beta-glucan, lentinan, reduces CCL3/MIP-1a production via down-modulation of TLR2-and TLR4-mediated NFkB activation and TLR2 expression in human THP-1 monocytes. The FASEB Journal April 2015 Vol. 29, No. 1. Supplement 130.6.
K.H. Poddar, L.J. Cheskin et al. Positive effect of mushrooms substituted for meat on body weight, body composition, and health parameters. A 1-year randomized clinical trial. Appetite 71 (December 2013) 379–387.
Cheskin LJ, et al. Lack of energy compensation over 4 days when white button mushrooms are substituted for beef. Appetite 2008;51: 50-57.
Kloss R, et al. Body weight and composition changes after consumption of two different very low carbohydrate diets versus a lower fat diet. Experimental Biology, San Francisco, CA. Abstract #267.8. 2006
Hess J, Wang Q, Kraft C and Slavin J. Impact of Agaricus bisporus mushroom consumption on satiety and food intake, Appetite 2017 (Oct). 179-185.
Umami and Sodium
Umami, Flavor and Sodium
Myrdal Miller, A., Mills, K., Wong, T., Drescher, G., Lee, S.M., Sirimuangmoon, C., Schaefer, S., Langstaff, S., Minor, B. and Guinard, J.-X. (2014), Flavor-Enhancing Properties of Mushrooms in Meat-Based Dishes in Which Sodium Has Been Reduced and Meat Has Been Partially Substituted with Mushrooms. Journal of Food Science. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.12549
Harry Marsales, B.T. Williams, Z.M. LaMacchia, T.C. Rideout, and P.J. Horvath. The effect of mushroom intake on modulating post-prandial glycemic response (647.48). FASEB J. April 2014. doi: 28:647.48
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, and The Culinary Institute of America. Tasting Success with Cutting Salt. Publication. President and Fellows of Harvard College and The Culinary Institute of America, 2010. Print.
Yamaguchi S, Ninomiya K. Umami and food palatability. J Nutr 2000;130:921S-6S.
Halpern, BP. Glutamate and the flavor of foods. J Nutr 2000;130: 910S-4S.
Wong KM, Decker EA, Sutio WR, Toong K, DeStefano G, and Kinchla A. Utilizing mushrooms to reduce overall sodium in taco filling using physical and sensory evaluation. Journal of Food Science. Aug. 2017,DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.13838.
Summers AC, Adaora D, Smith P, Frutchey R, Lindsey T et al. Acceptance of a mushroom-soy-beef blend burger among school-aged children.
May 2017. Vol. 4, No. 3, 274-281. .https://ingentaconnect.com/contentone/psp/hbpr/2017/00000004/00000003/art00008. Open Access.
Guinard JX, Myrdal Miller A, Mills K, Wong T, Lee SM, Sirimuangmoon C, Schaefer SE, and Drescher G. Consumer acceptance of dishes in which beef has been partially substituted with mushrooms and sodium has been reduced. Appetite. 2016, Oct. 1;105:449-459.
Myrdal Miller A, Mills K, Wong T, Dresher G, Lee SM, Sirimuangmoon C, Schaefer S, Langstaff S, Minor B and Guinard JX. “Flavor-enhancing properties of mushrooms in meat-based dishes in which sodium has been reduced and meat has been partially substituted with mushrooms.” Journal of Food Science. 2014 Sept; 79(9):S1795-804.
Summers AC, Smith P, Ezike A, Frutchey R, Fahle J, DeVries E. Taylor J and Cheskin LJ. A pilot study to compare a mushroom-soy-beef burger to an all-beef burger in school meals. The Journal of Child Nutrition and Management, Fall. 2015, Vol 39, Issue 2.
Xiaofen Du, Joanna Sissons, Marcus Shanks, Anne Plotto, Aroma and flavor profile of raw and roasted Agaricus bisporus mushrooms using a panel trained with aroma chemicals, LWT, Volume 138, 2021, 110596, ISSN 0023-6438, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2020.110596.
Du X, Muniz A, Sissons J, Wang W, Juma S. Consumer acceptance of egg white partially substituted with mushrooms and mushroom–egg white flavor pairing. Food Sci Nutr. 2021;00:1–12. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2105
Robak TJ, Lalal LA, Morris MJ, Williams BT, Browne RW and Horvath PJ. Acute effects on satiety from white button and shiitake mushroom powder supplementation in a high fat meal. The FASEB Journal April 2016. Vol. 30, No. 1, Supplement 692.20.
Morris MJ, Robak TF, Talal LA, Williams BT, Browne RW and Horvath PJ. Acute effects of white button and shiitake mushroom powder supplementation on postprandial lipemia following a high fat meal. The FASEB Journal April 2016. Vol. 30 No. 1, Supplement 692.27.
Gil-Ramirez A, Caz V, Martin-Hernandez R, Marín FR, Largo C, et al. Modulation of cholesterol-related gene expression by ergosterol and ergosterol-enriched extracts obtained from Agaricus bisporus. Eur J Nutr. April 2016, Vol. 55 (3): 1041-1057.
Gil-Ramírez A, Ruiz-Rodríguez A, Marín FR, Reglero G, and Soler-Rivas C. Effect of ergosterol-enriched extracts obtained from Agaricus bisporus on cholesterol absorption using an in vitro digestion model. Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 11, November 2014, Pages 589-597.
Handayani D, Meyer BJ, Chen J, Brown SH, Mitchell TW and Huang XF. A high-dose Shiitake mushroom increases hepatic accumulation of triacylglycerol in rats fed a high-fat diet: underlying mechanism. Nutrients. 2014;6(2):650-662.
Kim SH, Thomas MJ, Wu D, Carman CV, Ordovás JM, Meydani M. Edible Mushrooms Reduce Atherosclerosis in Ldlr-/- Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet. J Nutr. 2019 Aug 1;149(8):1377-1384. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxz075. PMID: 31162580.
Lee DH, Yang M, Giovannucci EL, Sun Q, Chavarro JE. Mushroom consumption, biomarkers, and risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study of US women and men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2019 Sep 1;110(3):666-674. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz057. PMID: 31172167; PMCID: PMC6736198.
Feng L, Cheah IK, Ngc MM-X, Lic J, Chand SM, Lime SU, Mahendrana R, Heok Kuaa EH and Halliwell B. The Association between Mushroom Consumption and Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Singapore Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 68 (2019) 197–203.
Zhang S, Tomata Y, Sugiyama K, Sugawara Y, Tsuji I. Mushroom consumption and incident dementia in elderly Japanese: The Ohsaki Cohort 2006 study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017;65(7):1462Y1469.
Zajac I, Cavuoto P, Danthiir V, Wittert GA, Krause D, Lawson L, Noakes M, Syrette J, Weaver J, Bennett L. A randomised, double blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial testing the effects of a vitamin D-enriched mushroom supplement on cognitive performance and mood in healthy elderly adults: study protocol. Healthy Aging Research 2016; 5:5.
Thangthaeng N, Miller MG, Gomes SM and Shukitt-Hale B. Daily supplementation with mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) improves balance and working memory in aged rats. Nutr Res 2015, Dec; 35(12): 1079-84.
Bennett L, Kersaitis C, Macaulay SL, Munch G, Niedermayer G, Nigro J, Payne M, Sheean P. Vallotton P, Dimitrios Zabaras D, Bird M. Vitamin D2-Enriched Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) Improves Memory in Both Wild Type and APPswe/PS1dE9 Transgenic Mice. PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 1 October 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 10 | e76362.
Mori K, Inatomi S, Ouchi K, Azumi Y, Tuchida T. Improving effects of the mushroom Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceus) on mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phyther Res. 2009;23(3):367Y372.
O’Neil, Carol et al. Mushroom consumption is associated with increased nutrient intakes and better diet quality in adult participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001–2010). FASEB J. April 2013. doi: 10.1096/fj.1530-6860
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory. 2010. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 28. USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory website: https://www.ars.usda.gov/northeast-area/beltsville-md/beltsville-human-nutrition-research-center/nutrient-data-laboratory/docs/usda-national-nutrient-database-for-standard-reference/.
Feeney MJ. Mushrooms–intake, composition, and research. Nutr Today 2006;41:219-26.
Dikeman CL, et al. Effects of stage of maturity and cooking on the chemical composition of select mushroom varieties. J Agr Food Chem 2005;1130-8.
Roupas R, Keogh J, Noakes M, Margetts C and Taylor P. The role of edible mushrooms in health: Evaluation of the evidence. Journal of Functional Foods, available online May 26, 2012.
Phillips KM and Rasor AS. A mixed mushroom control material to facilitate inter-laboratory harmonization of mushroom composition analyses. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 48 (2016); 48-66.
Bemas E, and Jaworska GY. Vitamins profile as an indicator of the quality of frozen Agaricus bisporus mushrooms. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 49 (June 2016); 1-8.
Glamočlija J, Dejan Stojković D, Miloš Nikolić M, Ćirić A, Reis FS, et al. A comparative study on edible Agaricus mushrooms as functional foods. Food Funct. 2015; 6, 1900-1910 doi.10.1039/C4FO01135J.
Muna GA, John M, Benson M, and Ogoyi D. Antioxidant properties of cultivated edible mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) in Kenya. Afr J Biotech 2015. Vol 14, No 16.
Gunawardena D, Bennett L, Shanmugam K, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of five commercially available mushroom species determined in lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ activated murine macrophages. Food Chemistry. 2014; 148: 92-96.
General Health Promotion
General Health Promotion
Valverde ME, Hernández-Pérez T, and Octavio Paredes-López O. Review article Edible mushrooms: Improving human health and promoting quality life. International Journal of Microbiology 2015, https://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/376387. Open Access.
Feeney MJ, Myrdal-Miller A, and Roupas P. Mushrooms—Biologically distinct and nutritionally unique. Nutrition Today, Nov. 2014; 49(6): 301-307. Open Access.
Williams B, Marsales H, Millen A, Burton H, Browne R, and Horvath P. Effect of chronic mushroom intake on functional fitness in older men and women. The FASEB Journal April 2014; 28:1. Supplement 1027.9.
Feeney MJ, Dwyer J, Hasler-Lewis CM, Milner JA, Noakes M, Rowe S et al. Mushrooms and Health Summit Proceedings. J. Nutr. 144: 1128S–1136S, 2014.
O’Neill CE, Nicklas TA and Fulgoni III VL. Mushroom intake is associated with better nutrient intake and diet quality: 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Journal of Nutrition and Food Science 2013, 3:229. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000229. Open Access.
Roupas P, et al The Role of Edible Mushrooms and Health: Evaluation of the evidence. J. Functional Foods, 2010, Vol 4., No. 4, pp 687-709.
Agarwal S, Fulgoni III V, Nutritional impact of adding a serving of mushrooms to USDA Food Patterns – a dietary modeling analysis, Food & Nutrition Research 2021, 65: 5618 – http://dx.doi.org/10.29219/fnr.v65.5618
Fulgoni VL III, Agarwal S. Nutritional impact of adding a serving of mushrooms on usual intakes and nutrient adequacy using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2016 data. Food Sci Nutr. 2021;00:1–8. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2120
Roncero-Ramos & Degado-Andrade The beneficial role of edible mushrooms in human health Curr Opin Food Sci 2017
M.S. Calvo, S.J. Whiting, Survey of current vitamin D food fortification practices in the United States and Canada, J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2012.
Simon RR, et al. Vitamin D mushrooms: Comparison of the composition of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) treated post harvest with UVB light or sunlight. J. Agric. Food Chem 2011: 59 (16), 8724–8732.
Phillips KM, et al. Vitamin D and Sterol Composition of 10 Types of Mushrooms from Retail Suppliers in the United States. J Agr Food Chem 2011; 59, 7841–7853.
Hohman EE, et al. Bioavailability and efficacy of vitamin D2 from UV-irradiated yeast in growing, vitamin D-deficient rats. J Agr Food Chem 2011:DOI: 10.1021/jk104679c
Kalaras MD, Beelman RB. Post-harvest production and retention of vitamin D2 in fresh mushrooms treated with pulsed-UV light and effects on quality. Institute of Food Technologists annual meeting, Chicago, IL. 2010
Office of Dietary Supplements. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin D. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminD-HealthProfessional/#h3. Accessed: September 2017
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory. 2017. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 28. USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory website: https://www.ars.usda.gov/northeast-area/beltsville-md/beltsville-human-nutrition-research-center/nutrient-data-laboratory/docs/usda-national-nutrient-database-for-standard-reference/
Koyyalamudi SR, Jeona SC, Song CH, Pang G. Vitamin D2 formation and bioavailability from Agaricus bisporus button mushrooms treated with ultraviolet irradiation. J Agr Food Chem 2009;57:3351-5.
Holick MF, et al. Vitamin D2 is as effective as vitamin D3 in maintaining circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93:677-681.
Holick MF. Vitamin D Deficiency. N Engl J Med 2007; 357:266-81.
Feeney M J. Mushrooms–intake, composition, and research. Nutr Today 2006;41:219-26.
Dikeman CL, Bauer LL, Flickinger EA, Fahey GC. Effects of stage of maturity and cooking on the chemical composition of select mushroom varieties. J Agr Food Chem 2005;1130-8.
Calvo MS, et al. Vitamin D(2) from light-exposed edible mushrooms is safe, bioavailable and effectively supports bone growth in rats. Osteoporos Int. 2012 Feb 23.
Kristensen HL, Rosenqvist E, Jakobsen J. Increase of vitamin D2 by UV-B exposure during the growth phase of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). Food Nutr Res. 2012; 56.
Urbain P, and Jakobsen J. Dose−response effect of sunlight on vitamin D2 production in Agaricus bisporus mushrooms. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2015, 63 (37): 8156−8161 DOI.
Chen SY, Yu HT, Kao JP, Yang CC, Chian SS, Mishchuk DO, Mau JL and Slupsky CM. Consumption of vitamin D2enhanced mushrooms is associated with improved bone health. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 2015 Vol. 6 (7):696-703.
Mehrota A, Calvo, MS, Beelman RB, Levy E, Sluty J, Kalaras MD, and Uribarri J. “Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from enriched mushrooms in prediabetic adults: A randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2014 Oct;68(10):1154-60 .
Phillips, V and Rasor A. A nutritionally meaningful increase in vitamin D in retail mushrooms is attainable by exposure to sunlight prior to consumption. Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. 2013; 3:236. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000236. Open Access.
Bennett L, Kersaitis C, Macaulay SL, Münch G, Niedermayer G, et al. Vitamin D2-enriched button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) improves memory in both wild type and APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice. PLoS ONE 2013 10): e76362. Open Access.
Stepian M, O’Mahony L, O’Sullivan A, Collier J, Fraser WD, Gibney MJ, Nugent AP and Brennan L. Effect of supplementation with vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms on vitamin D status in healthy adults. Journal of Nutritional Science 2013 Vol 23 e29. Open Access.
Babu, US, Balan KV, Garthoff LH and Calvo MS. Vitamin D2 from UVB-light exposed mushrooms modulates immune response to LPS in rats. Journal of Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 2014 Issue 2: 318-328.
Cardwell G, Bornman JF, James AP, Black LJ. A Review of Mushrooms as a Potential Source of Dietary Vitamin D. Nutrients. 2018 Oct 13;10(10):1498. doi: 10.3390/nu10101498. PMID: 30322118; PMCID: PMC6213178.
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