See below for a list of existing research on the nutrients in mushrooms and how they may help in disease prevention. This research is just the beginning of what is sure to be an exciting journey into a fuller understanding of mushrooms and your health.
Mushrooms & Your Health
Over the last decade, City of Hope researchers identified and tested cancer-inhibiting compounds in the common supermarket mushroom. Their work has moved into clinical trials at City of Hope, including the areas of suppressed growth of breast cancer and prostate cancer cells. Click here to read the latest on City of Hope’s work with mushrooms.
Just Add Mushrooms
Researchers have identified another good reason to eat more mushrooms. Research, published in Food Science & Nutrition (January 2021), found that adding a mushroom serving to the diet increased the intake of several micronutrients, including shortfall nutrients such as vitamin D, without any increase in calories, sodium or fat.8 Read more here.
Mushrooms are hearty and filling. Preliminary research suggests increasing intake of low energy dense foods, meaning few calories given the volume of food, specifically mushrooms, in place of high energy dense foods like lean ground beef can be helpful with weight management as they promote daily energy by limiting fat intake and leaving you full and satiated after a meal.5 Click here to read the full study.
The 2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans encourages healthy dietary patterns that are low in sodium. Mushrooms are fat free, low in sodium and their inherent umami counterbalances saltiness and allows for less salt to be used in recipes. Learn more about the Culinary Institute of America’s work with mushrooms and sodium reduction.
This research section is organized by topics of interest. For nutrition composition of common edible and culinary mushrooms, see: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. FoodData Central, 2019. fdc.nal.usda.gov.
- Jedinak A, et al. Pleurotus ostreatus inhibits colitis-related colon carcinogenesis in mice. Int J Mol Med 2010;26:643-50.
- Jiang J, Sliva D. Novel medicinal mushroom blend suppresses growth and invasiveness of human breast cancer cells. Int J Oncol 2010;37:1529-1536.
- Kodama N, Mizuno S, Nanba H, Saito N. Potential antitumor activity of a low-molecular-weight protein fraction from Grifola frondosa through enhancement of cytokine production. J Med Food 2010;13:20-30.
- Lin H, et al. Maitake beta-glucan promotes recovery of leukocytes and myeloid cell function in peripheral blood from paclitaxel hematotoxicity. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2010;59:885-897.
- Louie B, Rajamahanty S, Won J, Choudhury M, Konno S. Synergistic potentiation of interferon activity with maitake mushroom d-fraction on bladder cancer cells. BJU Int 2010;105:1011-1015.
- Martin KR, Brophy SK. Commonly consumed and specialty dietary mushrooms reduce cellular proliferation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Exp Biol Med 2010;235:1306-14.
- Shin A, et al. Dietary mushroom intake and the risk of breast cancer based on hormone receptor status. Nutr Cancer2010;62:476-83.
- Zhang M, Huang J, Xie X, Holman CD. Dietary intakes of mushrooms and green tea combine to reduce the risk of breast cancer in Chinese women. Int J Cancer 2009;124:1404-8.
- Martin KR, Brophy S. Dietary mushrooms reduce mitogenesis and induce apoptosis and cytotoxicity in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. 2009. Experimental Biology, New Orleans, LA.
- Hong SA, Kim K, Nam SJ, Kong G, Kim, MK. A case-control study on the dietary intake of mushrooms and breast cancer risk among Korean women. Int J Cancer 2008;122:919-23.
- Adams LS, Phung S, Wu X, Ki L, Chen S. White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) exhibits antiproliferative and proapoptotic properties and inhibits prostate tumor growth in athymic mice. Nutr Cancer 2008;60:744-56.
- Jedinak A, Sliva D. Pleurotus ostreatus inhibits proliferation of human breast and colon cancer cells through p53-dependent as well as p53-independent pathway. Int J Oncology 2008;33:1307-13.
- Di Rado, A. “Researchers study mushrooms’ cancer-fighting potential.” Hope News 3 (16 June 2008). City of Hope. https://www.cityofhope.org/about/publications/hope-news/2008-vol-3-num-19-june-16/Pages/researchers-study-mushrooms-cancerfighting-potential.aspx.
- Chen S, et al. Anti-aromatase activity of phytochemicals in white button mushrooms. Cancer Res 2006;66:12026-34.
- Chen S, et al.Chemopreventive properties of mushrooms against breast cancer and prostate cancer. Int J Med Mushr2005;7:342-3.
- Wasser SP. Medicinal mushrooms as a source of antitumor and immunomodulating polysaccharides. Appl Microbiol Biot2002;60:258-74.
- Grube BJ, et al. White button mushroom phytochemicals inhibit aromatase activity and breast cancer cell proliferation. J Nutr 2001;131:3288-93.
- Jeong SC, et al. Macrophage immunomodulating and antitumor activities of polysaccharides isolated from Agaricus bisporus white button mushrooms. J Med Food. 2012 Jan; 15(1):58-65
- Twardowski P, Kanaya N, Frankel P, Synold T, Ruel C, et al. A phase I trial of mushroom powder in patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer: Roles of cytokines and myeloid-derived suppressor cells for Agaricus bisporus-induced prostate-specific antigen responses. Cancer 2015; May 18. doi. 10.10.1002/cncr.29421.
- Li J, Zou L, Chen W, et al. Dietary mushroom intake may reduce the risk of beast cancer: Evidence from a meta-analysis of observational studies. PLOS One. 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093437. Open Access.
- Suzuki N, Yuko T, Riho S, et al. Efficacy of oral administration of Lentinula edodes mycelia extract for breast cancer patients undergoing postoperative hormone therapy. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2013; 14: 3469-3472. doi:10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.6.3469.
- Lee DH, Yang M, Keum N, Giovannucci EL, Sun Q, Chavarro JE. Mushroom Consumption and Risk of Total and Site-Specific Cancer in Two Large U.S. Prospective Cohorts. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2019 Aug;12(8):517-526. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0101. Epub 2019 Jun 4. PMID: 31164344; PMCID: PMC6677603.
- Zhang S, Sugawara Y, Chen S, Beelman RB, Tsuduki T, Tomata Y, Matsuyama S, Tsuji I. Mushroom consumption and incident risk of prostate cancer in Japan: A pooled analysis of the Miyagi Cohort Study and the Ohsaki Cohort Study. Int J Cancer. 2020 May 15;146(10):2712-2720. doi: 10.1002/ijc.32591. Epub 2019 Sep 4. PMID: 31486077; PMCID: PMC7154543.
- Mona Calvo, Robert Beelman, Anita Mehrotra, Girish Nadkarni, Lingzhi Wang, Goh Boon Cher, and Jaime Uribarri. Risk factor modification in pre-diabetic adults consuming white button mushrooms rich in the anti-oxidant, ergothioneine (117.4). FASEB .J April 2014. doi: 28:117.4
- Martin KR. Both common and specialty mushrooms inhibit adhesion molecule expression and in vitro binding of monocytes to human aortic endothelial cells in a pro-inflammatory environment. Nutr J 2010;16:29.
- Weigand AJ, et al. Bioavailability of ergothioneine from mushrooms in adult men. Institute of Food Technologists annual meeting, Chicago, IL. 2010
- Dubost NJ, et al. Quantification of polyphenols and ergothioneine in cultivated mushrooms and correlation to total antioxidant capacity. Food Chem 2007;105:727-735.
- Dubost NJ, et al. Identification and quantification of ergothioneine in cultivated mushrooms by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Int J Med Mushr 2006;8:215-22.
- Kozarski M, Klaus A, Jakovljevic D, Todorovic N, Vunduk J, Petrovic P, Niksic M, Vrvic MM, and van Griensven L. Antioxidants of edible mushrooms. Molecules 2015, 20, 19489-19525. Open Access.
- Siu K-C, Chen X, and Wu JY. Constituents actually responsible for the antioxidant activities of crude polysaccharides isolated from mushrooms. Journal of Functional Foods, Vol.11, November 2014, Pages 548–556.
- Calvo MS, Beelman RB , Mehrotra A, Nadkarni G, Wang L, Cher GB, Uribarri J. Risk factor modification in pre-diabetic adults consuming white button mushrooms (WBM) rich in the anti-oxidant, ergothioneine. The FASEB Journal 2014; 28:1. Supplement 117.4.
- Xiaoshuang Dai, Joy M. Stanilka, Cheryl A. Rowe, Elizabethe A. Esteves, Carmelo Nieves, Samuel J. Spaiser, Mary C. Christman, Bobbi Langkamp-Henken, Susan S. Percival. Consuming Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Mushrooms Daily Improves Human Immunity: A Randomized Dietary Intervention in Healthy Young Adults, J Am Coll Nutr. 2015 Apr; 11:1-10.
- Wang J, Wu D, et.al. Dietary Supplementation with White Button Mushroom Augments the Protective Immune Response to Salmonella Vaccine in Mice. J. Nutr. November 20, 2013.
- Chandra L, et al. White button and shiitake mushrooms reduce the incidence and severity of collagen-induced arthritis in dilute brown non-agouti mice. J Nutr 2011;141:131-6.
- Kuvibidila S, Korlagunta K. Extracts from culinary-medicinal mushrooms increase intracellular α-Defensins 1-3 concentration in HL60 cells. Int J Med Mushr 2010;12:33-42.
- Martin KR. Both common and specialty mushrooms inhibit adhesion molecule expression and in vitro binding of monocytes to human aortic endothelial cells in a pro-inflammatory environment. Nutr J 2010;9:29.
- Sanhong Y, Weaver V, Martin K, Cantorna MT. The effects of whole mushrooms during inflammation. BMC Immunol2009;10.
- Traore D, Peterson S, Alexander H, Sharp D, Clarke S, Lucas E, Smith BJ, Kuvibidila S. The effects of Portabella mushrooms on bone mineral density and body composition in mice without and with collagen induced arthritis.Experimental Biology, New Orleans, LA. 2009
- Kuvibidila S, Alexander H, Lim YF, Christopher L, Lucas E, Clarke SL, Smith BJ. White button, Shiitake, and Portabella mushrooms modulate the development of collagen-induced arthritis in mice. FASEB J 2009;23.
- Ren Z, Guo Z, Meydani SN, Wu D. White button mushroom enhances maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and their antigen presenting function in mice J Nutr 2008;138:544-550.
- Calvo MS, Mehrotra A, Beelman RB, Nadkami G, Wang L, Weijing C, Goh Boon C, Kalaras MD and Uribarri J. A retrospective study in adults with metabolic syndrome: Diabetic risk factor response to daily consumption of Agaricus bisporus (white button mushrooms. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2016 Sept. 71(3):245-51.
- Dai X and Percival S. Shiitake-derived beta-glucan, lentinan, reduces CCL3/MIP-1a production via down-modulation of TLR2-and TLR4-mediated NFkB activation and TLR2 expression in human THP-1 monocytes. The FASEB Journal April 2015 Vol. 29, No. 1. Supplement 130.6.
- K.H. Poddar, L.J. Cheskin et al. Positive effect of mushrooms substituted for meat on body weight, body composition, and health parameters. A 1-year randomized clinical trial. Appetite 71 (December 2013) 379–387.
- Cheskin LJ, et al. Lack of energy compensation over 4 days when white button mushrooms are substituted for beef.Appetite 2008;51: 50-57.
- Kloss R, et al. Body weight and composition changes after consumption of two different very low carbohydrate diets versus a lower fat diet. Experimental Biology, San Francisco, CA. Abstract #267.8. 2006
- Hess J, Wang Q, Kraft C and Slavin J. Impact of Agaricus bisporus mushroom consumption on satiety and food intake, Appetite 2017 (Oct). 179-185.
- Myrdal Miller, A., Mills, K., Wong, T., Drescher, G., Lee, S.M., Sirimuangmoon, C., Schaefer, S., Langstaff, S., Minor, B. and Guinard, J.-X. (2014), Flavor-Enhancing Properties of Mushrooms in Meat-Based Dishes in Which Sodium Has Been Reduced and Meat Has Been Partially Substituted with Mushrooms. Journal of Food Science. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.12549
- Harry Marsales, B.T. Williams, Z.M. LaMacchia, T.C. Rideout, and P.J. Horvath. The effect of mushroom intake on modulating post-prandial glycemic response (647.48). FASEB J. April 2014. doi: 28:647.48
- Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, and The Culinary Institute of America. Tasting Success with Cutting Salt. Publication. President and Fellows of Harvard College and The Culinary Institute of America, 2010. Print.
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- Wong KM, Decker EA, Sutio WR, Toong K, DeStefano G, and Kinchla A. Utilizing mushrooms to reduce overall sodium in taco filling using physical and sensory evaluation. Journal of Food Science. Aug. 2017,DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.13838.
- Summers AC, Adaora D, Smith P, Frutchey R, Lindsey T et al. Acceptance of a mushroom-soy-beef blend burger among school-aged children.
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- Guinard JX, Myrdal Miller A, Mills K, Wong T, Lee SM, Sirimuangmoon C, Schaefer SE, and Drescher G. Consumer acceptance of dishes in which beef has been partially substituted with mushrooms and sodium has been reduced. Appetite.2016, Oct. 1;105:449-459.
- Myrdal Miller A, Mills K, Wong T, Dresher G, Lee SM, Sirimuangmoon C, Schaefer S, Langstaff S, Minor B and Guinard JX. “Flavor-enhancing properties of mushrooms in meat-based dishes in which sodium has been reduced and meat has been partially substituted with mushrooms.” Journal of Food Science. 2014 Sept; 79(9):S1795-804.
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- Xiaofen Du, Joanna Sissons, Marcus Shanks, Anne Plotto, Aroma and flavor profile of raw and roasted Agaricus bisporus mushrooms using a panel trained with aroma chemicals, LWT, Volume 138, 2021, 110596, ISSN 0023-6438, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2020.110596.
- Du X, Muniz A, Sissons J, Wang W, Juma S. Consumer acceptance of egg white partially substituted with mushrooms and mushroom–egg white flavor pairing. Food Sci Nutr. 2021;00:1–12. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2105
- Robak TJ, Lalal LA, Morris MJ, Williams BT, Browne RW and Horvath PJ. Acute effects on satiety from white button and shiitake mushroom powder supplementation in a high fat meal. The FASEB Journal April 2016. Vol. 30, No. 1, Supplement 692.20.
- Morris MJ, Robak TF, Talal LA, Williams BT, Browne RW and Horvath PJ. Acute effects of white button and shiitake mushroom powder supplementation on postprandial lipemia following a high fat meal. The FASEB Journal April 2016. Vol. 30 No. 1, Supplement 692.27.
- Gil-Ramirez A, Caz V, Martin-Hernandez R, Marín FR, Largo C, et al. Modulation of cholesterol-related gene expression by ergosterol and ergosterol-enriched extracts obtained from Agaricus bisporus. Eur J Nutr. April 2016, Vol. 55 (3): 1041-1057.
- Gil-Ramírez A, Ruiz-Rodríguez A, Marín FR, Reglero G, and Soler-Rivas C. Effect of ergosterol-enriched extracts obtained from Agaricus bisporus on cholesterol absorption using an in vitro digestion model. Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 11, November 2014, Pages 589-597.
- Handayani D, Meyer BJ, Chen J, Brown SH, Mitchell TW and Huang XF. A high-dose Shiitake mushroom increases hepatic accumulation of triacylglycerol in rats fed a high-fat diet: underlying mechanism. Nutrients. 2014;6(2):650-662.
- Kim SH, Thomas MJ, Wu D, Carman CV, Ordovás JM, Meydani M. Edible Mushrooms Reduce Atherosclerosis in Ldlr-/- Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet. J Nutr. 2019 Aug 1;149(8):1377-1384. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxz075. PMID: 31162580.
- Lee DH, Yang M, Giovannucci EL, Sun Q, Chavarro JE. Mushroom consumption, biomarkers, and risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study of US women and men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2019 Sep 1;110(3):666-674. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz057. PMID: 31172167; PMCID: PMC6736198.
- Feng L, Cheah IK, Ngc MM-X, Lic J, Chand SM, Lime SU, Mahendrana R, Heok Kuaa EH and Halliwell B. The Association between Mushroom Consumption and Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Singapore Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 68 (2019) 197–203.
- Zhang S, Tomata Y, Sugiyama K, Sugawara Y, Tsuji I. Mushroom consumption and incident dementia in elderly Japanese: The Ohsaki Cohort 2006 study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017;65(7):1462Y1469.
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- Thangthaeng N, Miller MG, Gomes SM and Shukitt-Hale B. Daily supplementation with mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) improves balance and working memory in aged rats. Nutr Res 2015, Dec; 35(12): 1079-84.
- Bennett L, Kersaitis C, Macaulay SL, Munch G, Niedermayer G, Nigro J, Payne M, Sheean P. Vallotton P, Dimitrios Zabaras D, Bird M. Vitamin D2-Enriched Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) Improves Memory in Both Wild Type and APPswe/PS1dE9 Transgenic Mice. PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 1 October 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 10 | e76362.
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